Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

            Sexually Transmitted Diseases are the conditions that passes from one person to another through sexual contact. It causes by having unprotected vaginal, anal, or oral sex with someone who has Sexually transmitted disease. 

 Sexually Transmitted Disease may also be called a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) or Venereal Disease (VD). 

Sexually Transmitted Diseases are transmitt ed may also be transmitted through sharing needles and breastfeeding.

 Common Symptoms in Men & Women

        Specific symptoms can vary, depending on the types of Sexually Transmitted Disease, it’s possible that you may have Sexually transmitted disease without any noticeable symptoms 


In men, common symptoms include: 

  • pain or discomfort during sex or urination
  • sores, bumps, or rashes on or around the penis, testicles, anus, buttocks, thighs, or mouth
  • unusual discharge or bleeding from the penis
  • painful or swollen testicles


common STD symptoms in women include: 

  • pain or discomfort during sex or urination. 
  • sores, bumps, or rashes on or around the vagina, anus, buttocks, thighs, or mouth
  • unusual discharge or bleeding from the vagina
  • itchiness in or around the vagina. y


Types of Sexually Transmitted Disease

There are many different types of infections can be transmitted sexually. The most common Sexually Transmitted Diseases are described below. 

HIV Infection 

HIV infection is most known infection which can transmitted through sexual contact. HIV damage the immune system and raise the risk of contracting other viruses or bacteria and certain cancers. It can leads to  AIDS, If left untreated. 

The early or acute HIV infection include following symptoms:  Fever

-        Chills

-        Aches and pains

-        Swollen lymph nodes

-        Sore throat

-        Headache

-        Nausea

-        Rashes 

These initial symptoms typically clear within a month or so. From that point onward, a person can carry HIV without developing serious or persistent symptoms for many years.

Other people may develop nonspecific symptoms, such as:

-        Recurrent fatigue

-        Fevers

-        Headaches

-        Stomach issues

There’s no cure for HIV yet, but treatment options are available to manage it. Early and effective treatment can help people with HIV live as long as those without HIV. 

Proper treatment can also lower your chances of transmitting HIV to a sexual partner. In fact, treatment can potentially lower the amount of HIV in your body to undetectable levels. At undetectable levels, HIV can’t be transmitted to other people.


HPV (human papillomavirus) Infection

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus that can be passed from one person to another through intimate skin-to-skin or sexual contact. There are many different strains of the virus. Some are more dangerous than others.

The most common symptom of HPV is warts on the genitals, mouth, or throat.

Some strains of HPV infection can lead to cancer, including:

-        Oral cancer

-        Cervical cancer

-        Vulvae cancer

-        Penile cancer

-        Rectal cancer

While most cases of HPV don’t become cancerous, some strains of the virus are more likely to cause cancer than others.

There’s no treatment for HPV. However, HPV infections often clear up on their own. There’s also a vaccine available to protect against some of the most dangerous strains, including HPV 16 and HPV 18 which are commonly responsible for cancer symptoms

If you contract HPV, proper testing and screenings can help your doctor assess and manage your risk of complications. 


HSV (Herpes Simplex Virus) Infection

 It’s a very common Sexually Transmitted Disease. HSV’s shorten name is Herpes. There are two main strains of the virus, HSV-1 and HSV-2, and can be transmitted sexually.

-        HSV-1 primarily causes oral herpes, which is responsible for cold sores. However, HSV-1 can also be passed from one person’s mouth to another person’s genitals during oral sex. When this happens, HSV-1 can cause genital herpes.

-        HSV-2 primarily causes genital herpes.

The most common symptom of herpes is blistery sores. In the case of genital herpes, these sores develop on or around the genitals. In oral herpes, they develop on or around the mouth.

Herpes sores generally crust over and heal within a few weeks. The first outbreak is usually the most painful. Outbreaks typically become less painful and frequent over time.

If a pregnant woman has herpes, she can potentially pass it to her foetus in the womb or to her newborn infant during childbirth. This so-called Cogenital Herpes can be very dangerous to newborns. That’s why it’s beneficial for pregnant women to become aware of their HSV status.

There’s no cure for herpes yet. But medications are available to help control outbreaks and alleviate the pain of herpes sores. The same medications can also lower your chances of passing herpes to your sexual partner.

Effective treatment and safe sexual practices can help you lead a comfortable life with herpes and protect others from the virus. 



Chlamydia causes by bacteria. It’s the most commonly reported Sexually Transmitted Disease among Americans.


Many people with chlamydia have no noticeable symptoms. When

symptoms do develop, they often include:

-        Pain or discomfort during sex or urination

-        Green or yellow discharge from the penis or vagina

-        Pain in the lower abdomen


If left untreated, chlamydia can lead to:

-        Pelvic Inflammatory Disease 

-        Infections of the Urethra, Prostate gland or testicles.

-        Infertility


If a pregnant woman has untreated chlamydia, she can pass it to her baby during birth. The baby may develop:

-        Pneumonia

-        Eye infections

-        Blindness

Antibiotics can easily treat chlamydia. 



Syphilis is also a bacterial infection. It often goes unnoticed in its early stages.

The first symptom to appear is a small round sore, known as a chancre. It can develop on your genitals, anus, or mouth. It’s painless but very infectious.

Later symptoms of syphilis can include:

-        Rash

-        Fatigue

-        Fever

-        Headaches

-        Joint pain

-        Weight loss

-        Hair loss

If left untreated, late-stage syphilis can lead to:

-        Loss of vision

-        Loss of hearing

-        Loss of memory

-        Mental illness

-        Infections of the brain or spinal cord

-        Heart disease

-        Death

Fortunately, if caught early enough, syphilis is easily treated with antibiotics. However, syphilis infection in a new born can be fatal. That’s why it’s important for all pregnant women to be screened for syphilis.

The earlier syphilis is diagnosed and treated, the less damage it does. 



Gonorrhoea is a common bacterial Sexually Transmitted Disease. It’s also known as “the clap.”

Many people with gonorrhoea doesn’t develop noticeable symptoms. But when present, symptoms may include:

-        A white, yellow, beige, or green-coloured discharge from the penis or vagina

-        Pain or discomfort during sex or urination.

-        More frequent urination than usual

-        Itching around the genital.

-        Sore throat

If left untreated, Gonorrhoea can lead to:

-        Pelvic Inflammatory Disease 

-        Infections of the Urethra, Prostate gland or testicles.

-        Infertility

It’s possible for a mother to pass Gonorrhoea onto a newborn during childbirth. When that happens, Gonorrhoea can cause serious health problems in the baby. That’s why many doctors encourage pregnant women to get tested and treated for potential Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

Gonorrhoea can usually be treated with antibiotics. (As per the Doctor’s Consultation)



Trichomoniasis is also called as “trich.” It’s caused by a tiny protozoan organism that can be passed from one person to another through sexual contact.

The common symptoms of Trichomoniasis may include:

-        Discharge from the vagina or penis

-        Burning or itching around the vagina or penis 

-        Pain or discomfort during urination or sex

-        Frequent urination


In women, trich-related discharge often has an unpleasant or “fishy” smell.

If left untreated, trich can lead to:

-        Pelvic Inflammatory Disease 

-        Infection of Urethra

-        Infertility    

Trich can be treated with antibiotics. ( As per the Doctor’s Cunsultation)


Pubic lice (‘crabs’)

“Crabs” is another name for pubic lice. They’re tiny insects that can take up residence on your pubic hair. Like head lice and body lice, they feed on human blood.

Common symptoms of pubic lice include:

-        Itching around the genitals or anus

-        Small pink or red bumps around the genitals or anus

-        low-grade fever

-        lack of energy

-        irritability

You might also be able to see the lice or their tiny white eggs around the roots of pubic hair. A magnifying glass can help you spot them.

If left untreated, pubic lice can spread to other people through skin-to-skin contact or shared clothing, bedding, or towels. Scratched bites can also become infected. It’s best to treat pubic lice infestations immediately.

If you have pubic lice, you can use over-the-counter topical treatments and tweezers to remove them from your body. It’s also important to clean your clothes, bedding, towels, and home.

Other, less common Sexually Transmitted Diseases include:


Ø  Chancroid

Ø  Lymphogranuloma venereum

Ø  Granuloma Inguinale

Ø  Molluscum Contagiousum

Ø  Scabies 


Sexually Transmitted Diseases from Oral Sex

Vaginal and anal sex aren’t the only way STDs are transmitted. It’s also possible to contract or transmit an STD through oral sex. In other words, STDs can be passed from one person’s genitals to another person’s mouth or throat and vice versa.

Oral STDs aren’t always noticeable. When they do cause symptoms, they often include a sore throat or sores around the mouth or throat.


Diagnosis of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

In most cases, doctors can’t diagnose Sexually Transmitted Diseases based on symptoms alone. If your doctor or other healthcare provider suspects you might have an Sexually Transmitted Diseases, they’ll likely recommend tests to check.


Depending on your sexual history, your healthcare provider might recommend STD testing even if you don’t have symptoms. This is because STDs don’t cause noticeable symptoms in many cases. But even symptom-free STDs can cause damage or be passed to other people.

Healthcare providers can diagnose most STDs using a urine or blood test. They may also take a swab of your genitals. If you’ve developed any sores, they may take swabs of those, too.

You can get tested for Sexually Transmitted Diseases at your doctor’s sexual health clinic.

If you’ve had any type of unprotected sex, it’s a good idea to ask your healthcare provider about Sexually Transmitted Diseases testing. Some people may benefit from more frequent testing than others


Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

The recommended treatment for Sexually Transmitted Diseases varies, depending on what STD you have either Bacterial or Viral type of Sexually Transmitted Diseases.  It’s very important that you and your sexual partner be successfully treated for STDs before resuming sexual activity. Otherwise, you can pass an infection back and forth between you.


Treatment of Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Usually, antibiotics can easily treat bacterial infections. It’s important to take all your antibiotics as per your doctor’s consultation or prescription. Continue taking them even if you feel better before you finish taking all of them. Let your doctor know if your symptoms don’t go away or return after you’ve taken all of your prescribed medication.

Treatment of Viral Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Most of viral infections have no cure, some can clear on their own. And in many cases, treatment options are available to relieve symptoms and reduce the risk of transmission.

Treatment of Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Some STDs are caused by neither viruses nor bacteria. Instead, they’re caused by other small organisms like pubic lice, trich, scabies

These STDs are usually treatable with oral or topical medications. Ask your doctor or other healthcare provider for more information about your condition and treatment options.


Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Avoiding unprotected sexual contact is the only fool proof way to avoid Sexually Transmitted Diseases. But if you do have vaginal, anal, or oral sex, there are ways to make it safer.

 For optimal protection, it’s important to use Condoms during vaginal, anal, and oral sex. Condoms provide effective protection against many Sexually Transmitted Diseases that spread through fluids, such as semen or blood. But they can’t fully protect against STDs that spread from skin to skin.

Also, Dental Dams can also provide protection during oral sex.

Regular screening is a good idea for anyone who’s sexually active. It’s particularly important for those with a new partner or multiple partners. Since STDs often have no symptoms, testing is the only way to know for sure if you have one.

Before having sex with a new partner, it’s important to discuss your sexual history. Both of you should also be screened for STDs by a healthcare professional. If your partner tests positive for an STD, it’s important for them to follow their healthcare provider’s recommended treatment plan. You can also ask your doctor about strategies to protect yourself from contracting the STD from your partner.

Early diagnosis and treatment can help stop the spread of infections.


Living with Sexually Transmitted Diseases

If you test positive for a Sexually Transmitted Disease, it can often increase your chances of contracting another and it can also lead to severe consequences if left untreated.

STDs. In rare cases, untreated STDs may even be fatal. So, it’s important to get treatment as soon as possible.

Most of the Sexually transmitted diseases can be cure entirely. In other cases, early and effective treatment can help relieve symptoms, lower your risk of complications, and protect sexual partners.


Proper prevention and following your healthcare consultant’s recommended treatment can help to improve your long-term outlook with Sexually Transmitted Diseases.



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